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Физическое образование в вузах

Физическое образование в вузах №1 2013 (250,00 руб.)

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АннотацияДанный журнал является единственным, охватывающим все актуальные вопросы преподавания физики в вузе, и, как мы надеемся, он станет главным средством общения кафедр физики вузов стран СНГ. Главный редактор журнала − академик Российской академии наук, профессор МИФИ, научный руководитель Высшей школы им. Н.Г. Басова НИЯУ МИФИ О.Н. Крохин. Основные разделы журнала 1. Концептуальные и методические вопросы преподавания общего курса физики в вузе, техникуме, колледже. 2. Вопросы преподавания курса общей физики в технических университетах. 3. Современный лабораторный практикум по физике. 4. Демонстрационный лекционный эксперимент. 5. Информационные технологии в физическом образовании. 6. Вопросы преподавания общего курса физики в педвузах и специальных средних учебных заведениях. 7. Текущая практика маломасштабного физического эксперимента. 8. Связь общего курса физики с другими дисциплинами. 9. Интеграция Высшей школы и Российской Академии наук.
Физическое образование в вузах [Электронный ресурс] .— М. : Издательский дом МФО .— 2013 .— №1 .— 170 с. : ил. — Режим доступа: https://rucont.ru/efd/266833

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Издательский дом Московского Физического общества продолжает подписку на журнал «Физическое образование в вузах». <...> Вопросы преподавания курса общей физики в технических университетах. <...> К 100летию И.В. Савельева К 100летию И.В. Савельева Можно без преувеличения сказать, что Игорь Владимирович – это целая эпоха в деле преподавания общей физики во ВТУЗ’ах нашей страны. <...> Трехтомный «Курс физики» для технических вузов с обычной программой, «Сборник вопросов и задач по общей физике», двухтомник «Основы теоретической физики». <...> Метаматериалы впервые были созданы в конце 90х годов прошлого столетия и активно исследуются как среды, в которых на определенных частотах можно наблюдать отрицательное преломление. <...> Такие исследования убедительно подчеркивают насколько важно ознакомление , Изучение сред с отрицательным коэффициентом преломления в курсе общей физики 9 студентов технических специальностей с элементами общей теории относительности, в которой время и пространство искривлены. <...> Отрицательная групповая скорость Глубокое понимание сути явления отрицательного преломления света было достигнуто Л.И. Мандельштамом и изложено на одной из его лекций 1944 года [8]. <...> Протекание 10 А.А. Мамалуй, Е.С. Сыркин, И.В. Галущак, К.А. Минакова этого явления, при разборе которого о групповой скорости обычно вообще не упоминают, существенно зависит от ее знака. <...> Если же имеем случай отрицательной групповой скорости – случай, как уже говорилось, вполне реальный, – то все меняется. <...> Распространение импульса света в вакууме и в веществе [2] Известно, что если пространство между излучателем и приемником заполнено вакуумом, то перенос между ними электромагнитного излучения с энергией Е и импульсом P E c = (1) Отраженная волна 12 А.А. Мамалуй, Е.С. Сыркин, И.В. Галущак, К.А. Минакова сопровождается также переносом массы ∆М, равной 2 ∆= M E c Это соотношение легко получить при рассмотрении рис. <...> 14 А.А. Мамалуй, Е.С. Сыркин, И.В. Галущак, К <...>
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Физическое_образование_в_вузах_№1_2013_(1).pdf
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Abstracts The Study of Media with Negative Refractive Index in the General Physics Course A.A. Mamaluy1 , E.S. Syrkin2 , I.V. Galushak1 (Ukraine); email: kseniatrushina@list.ru 2 , X.A. Minakova1 1 National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute», Kharkov, UL. Frunze, 4 B.I. Verkin Institute of Physics of Low Temperatures. , National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov 47 Lenina (Ukraine), email: syrkinyes@yahoo.com Considering the exceptional importance of the problems, associated with wave’s propagations in media with negative refraction, invited to explore this phenomenon reading general physics course to students of technical colleges. Keywords: media with negative refraction, metamaterials, the group velocity, the Poynting vector, the Cerenkov radiation, the Doppler effect. Presentday Photonics and Education Y.L. Kolesnikov, N.V. Nikonorov SaintPetersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics; 197101, Saint Petersburg, Kronverkskiy pr., 49; email: kolesnikov@mail.ifmo.ru, nikonorov@oi.ifmo.ru A short characteristic of photonics as a new scientific and technological direction has been done. Key directions of researches and innovations in photonics have been shown as well as a world photonic market has been analyzed. A place of photonics in educational process has been shown on an example of National Research University of ITMO. Keywords: photonics; photonics market; photonics directions; photonics education. Course «Principles of Contemporary Natural science» for University Students of PhysicsRelated Majors V.M. Grabov, V.P. Pronin, E.U. Semenova Herzen State Pedagogical University; 191186, Saint Petersburg, Moyka, 48; email: phys@herzen.spb.ru The paper discusses the current stage of development of the educational course «Principles of contemporary natural science» for university students of physics-related majors. The main conclusion is made that combination of high scientific level and conceptual universalism of educational courses may be achieved by developing courses based on that in physics. However, the content selection, structure and teaching methods for the course «Principles of contemporary natural science» must be different for students that major in physics, chemistry, biology, geography etc. In Herzen State Pedagogical University the course based on such principles is successfully taught for physics students and also for students of other scientific and humanitarian faculties. 161
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162 natural science, conceptual universalism. Formation of Professional Competences of Creative Character in the Methodical System of Experimental Training for Physics Teachers Students N.V. Kalachev1 , A.V. Smirnov, S.A. Smirnov Moscow State Pedagogical University, Department of Theory and Methods of Teaching Physics, 1 Federation; email: nkalachev@fa.ru, smirnovav@rambler.ru, drv.serge@gmail.com The article argues that the formation of professional competences of creative nature in the field of physical experiment should start already in the Pedagogical University. To this end, the Department of the Theory and Methods of Teaching Physics the Moscow Pedagogical State University within the framework of a special course on designing school physical experiment created workshop on technology creativity of teachers in the development of educational experimental facilities, which is a part of the overall methodological system of experimental training for physics students of pedagogical universities. Main objectives: to teach future teachers to design and establish experimental facilities, gather up the necessary equipment for this purpose and align it between them, configure the collected plants, to promote the development of students ‘ professional skills in the area of physical experiment, in preparation for their creative work with the physical Cabinet, an ability to apply their physical experimental facilities in the educational process. Competences acquired by students during the workshop can be used later during the pedagogical practice and the pedagogical work. Keywords: teaching physics, professional competence, training of specialists, students, teachers, physical training, physical experiment workshop, development of creative abilities. Modern View of the Examination of the Second Law of Thermodynamics V.M. Goldman, V.I. Novoselov Tobolsk State SocialPedagogical Academy, email: goldmanvm@yandex.ru, vivnovoselov@yandex.ru It is suggested while studying the second law of thermodynamics to accept as basic the definition suggested by I. Prigozhin – about nonnegativity of production of entropy in any thermodynamic systems and for arbitrary processes. It is shown how other popular definitions can be generated from it, and which of them can be saved in their classical form, and which require specification and generalization. Keywords: entropy, flux of entropy, production of entropy, the second law of thermodynamics, normal thermodynamic systems, abnormal thermodynamic systems. University of Finance under the Government of the Russian Abstracts Keywords: higher professional education, science education, concepts of contemporary
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Abstracts Study of Сyclical Processes in Practical Training P.S. Bulkin, T.I. Malova, G.А. Mironova M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics; email: mironovabrandt@yandex.ru In the article the procedure of the study of the cyclical process, which consists of three isoprocesses, is described. In the course of fulfilling the laboratory work the components of energy balance and efficiency of engine are calculated. Keywords: cyclical processes, the isochoric heating of gas, the isobaric cooling process. Lessons of Nanoelectronics. 1. Elastic Resistor Model and New Ohm’s Law by Bottom – up Approach Yu.A. Kruglyak1 , N.E. Kruglyak2 1 Odessa State Environmental University, Odessa, Ukraine; email: quantumnet@yandex.ua 2 Odessa National University. I.i. Mechnikov University, Odessa, Ukraine; email: krtstudio@yandex.ua Elastic resistor model, ballistic and diffusion transport and new formulation of the Ohm’s law are discussed in the frame of the bottom – up approach of modern nanoelectronics. Keywords: nanoelectronics, molecular electronics, bottom – up, electric current, elastic resistor, conductivity modes, Ohm’s law. On Dependence and Independence Maxwell’s Equations V.I.Tsoy Physics Department, Saratov State University, 83 Astrakhanskaya Str., 410012, Saratov, Russia; email: TsoyVI@info.sgu.ru The disagreements concerning number of the independent equations in system of the Maxwell’s equations in manuals on electrodynamics are discussed. The equations of static fields with the account of relativistic invariance and Helmholtz theorem about decomposition of a vector field, the wave equations, equations for monochromatic field and transition between the equations for static and not static fields are considered. Keywords: Maxwell’s equations, Helmholtz theorem, relativistic invariance. Transformation of Nonmonotonic Dependence Formulas, Describing Oscillation Amplitudes A.N. Luzin Siberian State Academia of Geodesy, 10 Plakhotnogo st. 630008, Novosibirsk, Russia; email: tyushev@ngs.ru The transformations of formulas are presented. These formulas are used in physics 163
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164 Abstracts textbooks to describe the amplitude of forced mechanical oscillations, oscillation amplitudes of voltage across the resistor, across the capacitor and across the inductor in elementary closed circuit, containing the source of harmonically oscillating voltage. The formulas have been transformed for visual analysis in the vicinity of the extremum. Keywords: forced mechanical oscillations; electric oscillations; total square isolation; formula for visual analysis in the vicinity of the extremum. To the History of the General Physical Practicum. The Molecular Physics V.I. Kozlov M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow Vorobiev Hills 1; email: Kozlov1937.@mail.ru In 2009 year is passed hundred years after issue of the first manual to execution of laboratory works by physics of professor Moscow university A.P. Sokolov [1]. After this time in Moscow university and in other higher educational institutions and abroad are created a great number of laboratories works, are deducated to study of different physical phenomenon and physical lawers by means of most various methods. At the physical faculty MSU is created the book [2] according to materials of educational textbooks of different colleges, deducated to the physical practicum, according to materials of articles in different journals, including the referative journal of physics. In this book is collected the information about laboratories works by mechanics, published for the last hundred years. In this article is present the book, in which are described laboratories works by molecular physics, are published in these years. Keywords: general physical practicum, physical phenomenon, molecular physics, laboratories work. Laboratorial Researches of Outers Characteristics of «Land» Galvanic Elements S.I. Ofitsin Ryazan State Agrotecnical University named after P.A. Kostychev, email: s.ofitsin@yandex.ru This scientific work is a component part of research physical and technical and biological processes, for example a creation and exploitation of land’s galvanic elements. As a result of this work, they were got complex results, it was showed algorithm of designing research, it was created scientific and laboratorial complex on given theme. Keywords:ground galvanic elements, electromotive power, current of short-circuit, experimental equipment. The Young Interferometer of 8mm Wavelength Range as an Example of the QuasiOptical Modeling
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Abstracts in the Physics Workshop V.A. Kolyasnikov, M.V. Yakovlev Perm National Research Polytechnical University, 614990 Perm, Komsomolsky Av. 29; email: kolyasn@yandex.ru The article describes laboratory work on wave optics which has the target to demonstrate the interference phenomenon in microwaves range with the point probing of the interference field. Dielectric permittivity measurement results obtained with the use of 8-mm wavelength range Young Interferometer are being analyzed. The advantages of this pattern comparing with 3-sm wavelength Interferometers and wave guide technique are clearly shown. The possible ways of the accuracy increase are being also discussed. Keywords: laboratory works in physics; microwave interferometry; dielectric permittivity measurement. Computer Workshop on Studying of System of Electromagnetic Sizes and their Regularities A.S. Chuyev, N.А. Zadorozhnyi Baumann’ MSTU; email: chuev@mail.ru, nikazador@mail.ru Presented developed and used in educational process of the system of physical quantities and patterns (PQP) as a physical workshop on the study of the system of regularities of electromagnetic values. The objective of the workshop: an in-depth study of the students of units of measurements, dimensions and the natural relationships in the system of electromagnetic values. Keywords: physical practice, the system of laws electromagnetic values. Use of Elements of Distance Learning in the Differentiated Education of Students of Technical Universities Olga N. Tretiyakova Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University); email: tretiyakova_olga@mail.ru The article deals with the use of distance learning students of technical high school in the example we have developed 3D-computer lab physics laboratory. Keywords: computer physics practical work, Internet-technology, computer 3Dmodeling, distance education in physics, the software, computer information base. Remote Monitoring of the Correspondence Faculty Students Training Activity A.V. Baranov, L.A. Borynyak, B.B. Gorlov, V.V. Davydkov Novosibirsk State Technical University 165
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166 Abstracts Russia, 630092 Novosibirsk, K.Marx Prospekt 20, NSTU; email: baranovav@ngs.ru The Distance Learning System Moodle is used to monitor the current activities of students of the correspondence faculty. Three levels of testing in teaching physics are discussed. Keywords: monitoring of training activity, Moodle, testing. The Dynamics of Priorities in Planning Further Employment of the Graduates of Physics Department over a Period of 20052011 V.I. Danilchuk, V.Ye. Korobov Volgograd State Social Pedagogical University; email: dvi@vspu.ru, vek@vspu.ru The authors of the article have analyzed the dynamics of the choice of further employment among the students of Physics department of Volgograd State Social Pedagogical University since 2006, when the national programme «Education» was put in force. It is pointed out that high prestige of the profession among senior students have been achieved through the measures of the Government for the improvement of school education, social status of teachers, and also strengthening of the resource base of teaching Physics and IT. Keywords: dynamics; priorities; employment; graduates; National programme «Education». Implementation Experience of Innovative ScientificEducational Project «Modern Achievements of Science and Technology» N.I. Anisimova, I.O. Popova, I.I. Khinich Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia Moyka r. emb., 48, 191186, St. Petersburg, Russia, email: khinitch@gmail.com Possibilities that arose during the organization of the common project activities of the high school students, their teachers and the Universities’ instructors are discussed. Modern achievements of science and technology are proposed as the subject of such project activities. Keywords: teaching physics, nanotechnologies, scientific and research activities of school students, project activities. Research Training of Master Students L.N. Zavarykina, L.V. Koroleva, Е.B. Petrova Moscow Pedagogical State University; email: 1960_15@list.ru The article discusses the structure of research training offered for master students studying in the program «Modern Natural Science» (Course «Teacher Education»). The concept of the training is based on an innovative combination of two complement components «Scientific Project» and “Laboratory Course «Natural Science». Content of master students’ research
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Abstracts 167 activities acquiring research skills in the framework of the research training components is discussed in full details. Keywords: education; research training; scientific project; laboratory course «Natural Science»; innovative education technologies; individual educational pathway. Comprehensive Approach to the Topic «Current Flow in Liquids» in a Secondary School O.V. Kuznetsova Ryazan’ State University named by S.A. Esenin; email: o.kuznetsova@rsu.edu.ru The article deals with the study process in a secondary school from the point of view of its organization and management as interacted elements system in terms of the topic «Current flow in liquids» both at usual classes and in the elective courses. All the study levels introduced from the choice of study base, considering pupils’ psychological peculiarities, ergo-economics and physics office and school facilities to the monitoring of the study progress and development of basic professional capacities. Keywords: organization and management of study process, information and communication technologies, virtual labs, the level differentiation. Methods of Studying the Topic «The Electromagnetic Field of a Uniformly and Rectilinearly Moving Point Electric Charge» in the Physics Course in University J.S. Pozdnyakova Branch of V. P. Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University; email: pav@atomlink.ru Since 2007 at V. P. Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University branch has been carried out the deductive transformation of teaching material of the module «electricity and magnetism», within the limits of the general course of physics. The article deals with the derivation of the expressions of the electric intensity and the field density created by a uniformly and rectilinearly moving charge from the integral form of the Maxwell’s equations system. Also the author tries to define place of this task in the structure of the Electricity and Magnetism module. Key words: innovative teaching technology; Maxwell’s equations; electromagnetic field of a uniformly and rectilinearly moving charge; Biot-Savart-Laplace law. Подписано в печать 20 марта 2013 ã. Формат 70õ100/16. Заказ ¹ 33. Тираж 400 ýêç. Ï.ë. 10,5. Отпечатано в типографии ООО «Издательский Дом МФО». Ìîñêâà, Â-333, Ленинский ïðîñïåêò, 53. Òåë.: (499) 132 66 51
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168 Physics in Higher Education V. 19, ¹ 1, 2013 The contents 3 6 8 19 25 31 37 46 50 62 Centenary of I.V. Savelyev Information The Study of Media with Negative Refractive Index in the General Physics Course A.A. Mamaluy, E.S. Syrkin, I.V. Galushak, X.A. Minakova Present-day Photonics and Education Y.L. Kolesnikov, N.V. Nikonorov Course «Principles of Contemporary Natural science» for University Students of Physics-Related Majors V.M. Grabov, V.P. Pronin, E.U. Semenova Formation of Professional Competences of Creative Character in the Methodical System of Experimental Training for Physics Teachers Students N.V. Kalachev, A.V. Smirnov, S.A. Smirnov Modern View of the Examination of the Second Law of Thermodynamics V.M. Goldman, V.I. Novoselov Study of Ñyclical Processes in Practical Training P.S. Bulkin, T.I. Malova, G.А. Mironova Lessons of Nanoelectronics. 1. Elastic Resistor Model and New Ohm’s Law by Bottom – up Approach Yu.A. Kruglyak, N.E. Kruglyak On Dependence and Independence Maxwell’s Equations V.I.Tsoy 70 Transformation of Nonmonotonic Dependence Formulas, Describing Oscillation Amplitudes A.N. Luzin 75 To the History of the General Physical Practicum. The Molecular Physics V.I. Kozlov 82 92 98 Laboratorial Researches of Outers Characteristics of «Land» Galvanic Elements S.I. Ofitsin The Young Interferometer of 8-mm Wavelength Range as an Example of the QuasiOptical Modeling in the Physics Workshop V.A. Kolyasnikov, M.V. Yakovlev Computer Workshop on Studying of System of Electromagnetic Sizes and their Regularities A.S. Chuyev, N.А. Zadorozhnyi 105 Use of Elements of Distance Learning in the Differentiated Education of Students of Technical Universities O.N. Tretiyakova 116 Remote Monitoring of the Correspondence Faculty Students Training Activity A.V. Baranov, L.A. Borynyak, B.B. Gorlov, V.V. Davydkov 123 The Dynamics of Priorities in Planning Further Employment of the Graduates of Physics Department over a Period of 2005-2011 V.I. Danilchuk, V.Ye. Korobov 128 Implementation Experience of Innovative Scientific-Educational Project «Modern Achievements of Science and Technology» N.I. Anisimova, I.O. Popova, I.I. Khinich 134 Research Training of Master Students L.N. Zavarykina, L.V. Koroleva, Е.B. Petrova 142 Comprehensive Approach to the Topic «Current Flow in Liquids» in a Secondary School O.V. Kuznetsova 149 Methods of Studying the Topic «The Electromagnetic Field of a Uniformly and Rectilinearly Moving Point Electric Charge» in the Physics Course in University J.S. Pozdnyakova 161 Abstracts Abstracts
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